The Two Witnesses
by: J. R. Church
"And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth" (Rev. 11:3).
The mighty angel of chapter 10 is still speaking to John. The scene has not changed. We have noted that the open scroll in His hand identifies Him as Christ, though He is not so named. As He speaks here, we have a further indication of His identity. The mighty angel says, "I will give power unto my two witnesses." The fact that He refers to them as "my" witnesses implies that the mighty angel must be Jesus. I cannot imagine any other heavenly messenger with the authority to use such a term. We should note that John did not see these two witnesses, even in visionary form, as he sees other events in the book. He only receives a message about them and their ministry. Their story is not John's view, but that of the mighty Angel.
Why two witnesses? Did not Malachi promise only one witness? "Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD" (Mal. 4:5). At every Passover table, the Jewish family provides a chair, plate and cup of wine for only one extra guest, not two. During the course of the meal, a child is sent to the door to look for the promised heavenly visitor. There is no second witness expected to arrive. Furthermore, in the days of our Savior's First Advent, only John the Baptist came to announce the Messiah's arrival. There was no other witness.
According to the Mosaic Law, two witnesses were needed in order to get a death penalty in cases of capital crimes: "At the mouth of two witnesses ... shall the matter be established" (Deut. 19:15). Why was John the Baptist the only witness? Two thousand years ago, there was no need for two witnesses. Jesus did not come to judge the world. He did not overthrow the Roman government and establish the Messianic Kingdom. He came only to offer Himself as a sacrifice for the sins of the world. First-century history does not record a divinely designated Antichrist, worldwide Armageddon or eternal judgment upon the wicked. However, two witnesses will be needed to bring about God's judgment during the Tribulation Period.
Normally, when we think of a witness, we envision a soul winner telling others about the Gospel. But these two witnesses are sent to observe and condemn diabolical activity. Though we are told that they "prophesy" (Rev. 11:3); "turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers" (Mal. 4:6); and "restore all things" (Matt. 17:11); they also gather intelligence for the heavenly court. They will fulfill the requirements of the Mosaic Law.
In chapters 10 through 13, John uses three methods of timing events. In reference to Gentiles occupying Jerusalem, John speaks of "42 months." In the account of the two witnesses, he speaks of 1,260 days. In reference to the wilderness sojourn of the remnant, we are told that they will be protected from the Antichrist for "a time, and times, and half a time" (Rev. 12:14).
Joseph Seiss (1823-1904) explains the use of the term "months" as it relates to periods of divine judgment: "The computation is given in "months," which is common in the Scriptures when troubles and afflictions are the subject. The beginning and duration of the flood is expressed in months. The ark was in the country of the Philistines seven months. The locusts torment men five months. And Jerusalem's last great trial is computed in months, as well as the term of the blasphemies of the Beast.
"The number of the months is forty-two - six times the period that the ark was in captivity. Six is the number of evil, and seven of dispensational completion, and these are two marked factors of forty-two; which would seem to signify a fullness or completion of the evil in those months. Israel in the wilderness had forty-two stations, and the wicked youths slain by the bears for their mockery of Elisha were forty-two. The powerful monster who makes war with the saints, oppresses the nations, and blasphemes God, continues "forty-two months." And so the completion of Jerusalem's troubles is summed up in the same numbers and computation" (Apocalypse, Joseph A. Seiss, p. 241). The term "1,260 days" is used to designate both the ministry of the two witnesses (v. 3) and the remnant in the wilderness: "And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place prepared of God, that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and threescore days" (Rev. 12:6).
Here, the number of days is specific. However, eight verses later, John quotes from Daniel's prophecy that the remnant will be in the wilderness "for a time, and times, and half a time" (Rev. 12:14). Originally, Daniel coined the phrase: "And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time" (Daniel 7:25).
Twice, John uses "42 months"; twice, he uses "1,260 days"; and once, he uses "time, and times, and half a time." He does not tell us which is used to describe the first half of the Tribulation and which is used for the second half. We can only guess. But the emphasis is on a very short interval of time. We can be thankful that the Tribulation does not drag on for many years. If so, no one would be save. We are reminded of the promise of our Savior:
"And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's sake those days shall be shortened" (Matt. 24:22).
To determine the length of the Tribulation Period, we can rely on Daniel. The prophet is told that the abomination of desolation will occur in the midst of a "week," a seven-year period:
"And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate" (Dan. 9:27).
This seventieth week is a shavuah or Sabbatical cycle of seven years. John's use of three and one-half years falls within the framework of the seven-year cycle.
Who Are the Witnesses?
Are they Enoch and Elijah? Zerubbabel and Joshua? Daniel and John? Moses and Elijah? Many theologians have wondered at the identity of these two witnesses. Most are convinced that they represent the ministries of Moses and Elijah, since one has the ability to turn water to blood (as did Moses), and the other has the ability to stop the rain for three and a half years (as did Elijah).
Tertullian (A.D. 145-220), founder of Latin Christianity, was the first to suggest Enoch and Elijah: "Enoch no doubt was translated, and so was Elijah; nor did they experience death: it was postponed (and only postponed) most certainly: they are reserved for the suffering of death, that by their blood they may extinguish Antichrist" (Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2, ch. 50, pg. 414).
Tertullian believed that all men must die. Therefore, the only two men in the Bible who did not fulfill that indictment must return for the purpose of dying in the Tribulation Period.
It is true that the writer of Hebrews said:
"And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment" (Heb. 9:27).
He is referring to the progeny of Adam, to whom God said:
"Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die" (Gen. 2:16,17).
As a result of Adam's sin, all men are appointed to die. The Apostle Paul tells us:
"Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned" (Rom. 5:12).
This has been true in every generation. No one has left this world alive, with the exceptions of Enoch and Elijah. However, our Savior said that on resurrection day, a great host of believers will escape death. This is recorded in a conversation between Jesus and Martha, sister of Mary and Lazarus:
"Martha saith unto him, I know that he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day.
"Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live:
"And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die. Believest thou this?" (John 11:24-26).
If there are exceptions to the rule, why must Enoch and Elijah return for the sole purpose of dying? Will the rest of the saints, taken at the sound of the last trumpet, also have to return and die? Of course not. Therefore, the premise that Enoch must be one of the two witnesses is not valid.
Furthermore, John the Baptist died. He was, in every respect, the fulfillment of Malachi's prophecy. First of all, Gabriel revealed this to Zacharias:
"For he shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink; and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother's womb.
"And many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God.
"And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord" (Luke 1:15-17).
Secondly, Jesus concurred with the angel's announcement:
"For this is he, of whom it is written, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee.
"Verily I say unto you, Among them that are born of women there hath not risen a greater than John the Baptist: notwithstanding he that is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he.
"And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the violent take it by force.
"For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John.
"And if ye will receive it, this is Elias, which was for to come.
"He that hath ears to hear, let him hear" (Matt. 11:10-15).
There can be no doubt that John fulfilled the prophecy. But we know that Elijah did not return from heaven in a fiery chariot. In the case of John, the spirit of Elijah was manifested. And yet, John did not regard himself as Elijah. When a delegation from the Temple approached him about the matter, John explained that he was not Elijah:
"And this is the record of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, Who art thou?
"And he confessed, and denied not; but confessed, I am not the Christ.
"And they asked him, What then? Art thou Elias? And he saith, I am not" (John 1:19-21).
This may give us a clue as to why John, writer of the Gospel narrative, also refuses to give us the names of the two witnesses in his final book of Revelation. These two witnesses may not be ancient human beings returned to earth from heaven. Like John the Baptist, the two future witnesses may only be influenced by the spirits and powers of two Old Testament saints.
Zerubbabel and Joshua?
"These are the two olive trees, and the two candlesticks standing before the God of the earth" (Rev. 11:4).
John is told that these two witnesses are comparable to the two olive trees and the two candlesticks of Zechariah's prophecy:
"And said unto me, What seest thou? And I said, I have looked, and behold a candlestick all of gold, with a bowl upon the top of it, and his seven lamps thereon, and seven pipes to the seven lamps, which are upon the top thereof:
"And two olive trees by it, one upon the right side of the bowl, and the other upon the left side thereof.
"Then answered I, and said unto him, What are these two olive trees upon the right side of the candlestick and upon the left side thereof?
"And I answered again, and said unto him, What be these two olive branches which through the two golden pipes empty the golden oil out of themselves?
"And he answered me and said, Knowest thou not what these be? And I said, No, my lord.
"Then said he, These are the two anointed ones, that stand by the LORD of the whole earth" (Zech. 4:2,3,11-14).
This vision of a seven-lamp menorah with olive trees on either side has become the emblem for the modern state of Israel. At the time of the vision, Zerubbabel was the governor of Judea, while Joshua was the high priest. As the political leader and the religious leader, the two of them led in the construction of the Second Temple. It appears that Zerubbabel and Joshua were designated as the "two anointed ones."
Therefore, it is possible that Revelation's "two witnesses" will be the political leader and the religious leader of Israel. One of their tasks may be to inspire and oversee the construction of the Third Temple, as seen in the first and second verses of this chapter. It is unlikely that Zerubbabel and Joshua will return to become the two witnesses.
Daniel and John?
Unusual promises were made to both Daniel and John, which leads some to think that they may be the two witnesses of the Tribulation. To Daniel, God promised:
"But go thou thy way till the end be: for thou shalt rest, and stand in thy lot at the end of the days" (Dan. 12:13).
Though Daniel is promised resurrection, he is not given any instructions that would lead us to believe that he will be one of the two witnesses.
To John, God promised:
"And he said unto me, Thou must prophesy again before many peoples, and nations, and tongues, and kings" (Rev. 10:11).
If this promise meant that he would be one of the two witnesses during the Tribulation Period, John might have written the narrative differently, not from the viewpoint of a spectator, but from the perspective of a participator. Therefore, it is not likely that these two are Daniel and John.
Moses and Elijah?
"And if any man will hurt them, fire pro-ceedeth out of their mouth, and devoureth their enemies: and if any man will hurt them, he must in this manner be killed.
"These have power to shut heaven, that it rain not in the days of their prophecy: and have power over waters to turn them to blood, and to smite the earth with all plagues, as often as they will" (Rev. 11:5,6).
Moses had the power "over waters to turn them to blood, and to smite the earth with all plagues," while Elijah had the power "to shut heaven, that it rain not" in the days of his prophecy. No one else in Scripture had such power. Therefore, these two, representing the Law and the prophets, get my vote for the two witnesses. While speaking to the disciples about Elijah being John the Baptist, Jesus mentioned the importance of both the prophets and the Law:
"For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John.
"And if ye will receive it, this is Elias, which was for to come" (Matt. 11:13,14).
Both Moses, representing the Law, and Elijah, representing the prophets, seem to be in view as the Savior discusses the subject of John the Baptist being the fulfillment of the prophecy about the coming of Elijah. This is a powerful statement that leads many to believe that Moses could be the other witness.
In Malachi's prophecy, Moses is mentioned in verse 4, while Elijah is mentioned in verse 5:
"Remember ye the law of Moses my servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, with the statutes and judgments.
"Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD" (Mal. 4:4,5).
Though Moses appears nearby, Elijah seems to be the main focus of the prophecy. In Talmudic writings, Israel's sages often spoke of Elijah coming to introduce the Messianic Kingdom. Yet, they never mentioned a second witness. They spoke only of Elijah, never Moses, Enoch or anybody else. In the Scripture narratives, however, we should note that Moses withstood the king of Egypt, demanding the release of the Israelites, while Elijah withstood Ahab, the wicked king of Israel. Both men stood before kings. Their ministries were engaged in the political process. They stood against governmental injustice. This certainly qualifies them to stand together against the Antichrist.
After a short vacation at Caesarea Philippi, beneath Mt. Hermon, at the headwaters of the Jordan River, our Savior told His disciples that some of them would be allowed to see Him coming in the glory of His kingdom:
"For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works.
"Verily I say unto you, There be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom" (Matt. 16:27,28).
Six days later, He took Peter, James and John up into a high mountain for His transfiguration. The astonished disciples saw Moses and Elijah meeting with Jesus:
"And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into an high mountain apart,
"And was transfigured before them: and his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as the light.
"And, behold, there appeared unto them Moses and Elias talking with him" (Matt. 17:1-3).
As they descended the mountain, Jesus charged the men not to tell others about the vision. They were quite aware that the two heavenly citizens fulfilled the prophecy of Christ's coming in His kingdom. Therefore they wanted to learn more about Malachi's prediction that Elijah would return:
"And his disciples asked him, saying, Why then say the scribes that Elias must first come?
"And Jesus answered and said unto them, Elias truly shall first come, and restore all things.
"But I say unto you, That Elias is come already, and they knew him not, but have done unto him whatsoever they listed. Likewise shall also the Son of man suffer of them.
"Then the disciples understood that he spake unto them of John the Baptist" (Matt. 17:10-13).
The Savior assured them that the coming of Elijah would still occur in the future. Neither they nor the Savior regarded the appearance of Elijah on the mountain above them as the fulfillment of the prophecy.
Note: they did not ask about Moses. Nor did the Savior mention him. Only Elijah was the subject of the conversation. The prophet is scheduled to come and "restore all things." The rabbis taught that Elijah would return certain Temple artifacts, namely, the Ark of the Covenant, the ashes of the red heifer, the Temple incense, the Urim and Thummim, and other items necessary in Temple liturgy.
The appearance of Moses and Elijah on the Mount of Transfiguration is a powerful prophecy of the future coming of Christ in His kingdom. Jesus, Himself, connected the event with "the Son of man coming in his kingdom." This cannot be overlooked. Therefore, the weight of evidence that Moses is the other witness is far more powerful than Tertullian's choice of Enoch.
Note: the mountain where Jesus was transfigured was a six-day journey from Caesarea Philippi. Furthermore, it was a "high mountain apart" meaning, "out of the land." Just in passing, we should be reminded that Mount Nebo lies to the east of Judea, across the Jordan River and out of the land. Also, there are six watering holes along the way, making it a six-day journey south from Mount Hermon. Luke tells us that they spent the night on the mountain and descended the next morning. In other words, they spent the seventh day on the mountian. That must have been the Sabbath, and, by the way, a prophecy of the seventh millennium.
The Scriptural accounts of the death of Moses and the ascension of Elijah indicate that both occurred atop Mount Nebo. Perhaps the Mount of Transfiguration is neither Mount Tabor, as some believe, nor Mount Hermon, as others have suggested. Mount Nebo seems to be the most likely spot.
The concept that Enoch was the only other qualified candidate for Revelation's witness, simply because he never died, misses the fact that, in rabbinical circles, the manner of Moses' death has remained in question. No one saw him die. No Jewish scholar can certify that Moses died in the same manner that all other men die.
Moses must have added the last chapter of Deuteronomy prior to the event. In doing so, he presupposes the manner and circumstance of his death:
"So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD. "And he buried him in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Bethpeor: but no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day" "And Moses was an hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated" (Deut. 34:5-7).
According to rabbinical teaching, Moses could not be put to death in the normal manner because his body was filled with the Shekinah, something that occurred during his second 40-day sojourn on Mt. Sinai. When he returned to the camp, he had to veil his face:
"And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of testimony in Moses' hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses wist not that the skin of his face shone while he talked with him.
"And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face shone; and they were afraid to come nigh him.
"And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him: and Moses talked with them.
"And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh: and he gave them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount Sinai.
"And till Moses had done speaking with them, he put a vail on his face.
"But when Moses went in before the LORD to speak with him, he took the vail off, until he came out. And he came out, and spake unto the children of Israel that which he was commanded.
"And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses' face shone: and Moses put the vail upon his face again, until he went in to speak with him" (Ex. 34:29-35).
Because of the presence of the glory, rabbis have written that Moses had a glorified body. They say that if the tomb of Moses were discovered, one would find the body of Moses lying in state, perfectly preserved and still alive, though his soul and spirit would not be present. Though he was 120 years old at the time of his death, he was in perfect health. His body possessed all of the characteristics we will possess at the instant of our translation. For this reason, Jude tells us that Lucifer wants his body:
"Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee" (Jude 9).
What the devil wanted with the body of Moses is not certain. However, it seems that he wanted access to that particular source of immortality.
What Happened to Moses?
In his "Antiquities of the Jews," Josephus gives an unusual account of the disappearance of Moses. Keep in mind that it is an extra-biblical account that reflects the thinking of first-century Judaism. Moses did, indeed, die - at the hands of God, who buried him in an unmarked tomb somewhere in Moab. Just how and when, remains the mysterious part of the story.
In the opening chapter of Joshua, God tells the new leader of Israel, "Moses, my servant is dead" (Joshua 1:2). We should have no doubts about the death of Moses. But the events surrounding his death are most unusual. I think you will find them intriguing. Josephus writes:
"When Moses had spoken thus at the end of his life, and had foretold what would befall to every one of their tribes afterward, with the addition of a blessing to them, the multitude fell into tears, insomuch that even the women, by beating their breasts, made manifest the deep concern they had when he was about to die. "The children also lamented still more, as not able to contain their grief; and thereby declared, that even at their age they were sensible of his virtue and mighty deeds; and truly there seemed to be a strife betwixt the young and the old, who should most grieve for him. "The old grieved because they knew what a careful protector they were to be deprived of, and so lamented their future state; but the young grieved, not only for that, but also because it so happened that they were to be left by him before they had well tasted of his virtue.
"Now one may make a guess at the excess of this sorrow and lamentation of the multitude, from what happened to the legislator himself; for although he was always persuaded that he ought not to be cast down at the approach of death, since the undergoing it - as agreeable to the will of God and the law of nature, yet what the people did so overbore him, that he wept himself.
"Now as he went thence to the place where he was to vanish out of their sight, they all followed after him weeping; but Moses beckoned with his hand to those that were remote from him, and bade them stay behind in quiet, while he exhorted those that were near to him that they would not render his departure so lamentable.
"Whereupon they thought they ought to grant him that favor, to let him depart according as he himself desired; so they restrained themselves, though weeping still towards one another.
"All those who accompanied him were the senate, and Eleazar the high priest, and Joshua their commander. Now as soon as they were come to the mountain called Abarim, (which is a very high mountain, situate over against Jericho, and one that affords, to such as are upon it, a prospect of the greatest part of the excellent land of Canaan,) he dismissed the senate; and as he was going to embrace Eleazar and Joshua, and was still discoursing with them, a cloud stood over him on the sudden, and he disappeared in a certain valley, although he wrote in the holy books that he died, which was done out of fear, lest they should venture to say that, because of his extraordinary virtue, he went to God."
What fascinates me about this story is that Moses was walking toward Eleazar and Joshua, intending to embrace them with a final good-bye, and was talking with them when he suddenly vanished before their eyes! As the story goes, a cloud stood over him just before he disappeared. What ever Moses was saying, was cut off in the middle of his sentence. It was totally unexpected, even by Moses. This may sound like science fiction and yet, it appears to be the best description Jewish historians could produce. Moses did not say, "Beam me up, Scotty!" In fact, Moses was taken at a moment when even he did not expect it, otherwise, he would not have been walking toward Eleazar and in the middle of making a statement.
Moses disappeared in the same manner we expect to be taken in the rapture. He was transported alive into another location, probably not on this earth. He was caught up in much the same manner as Enoch, Elijah and Christ. The only difference is that God brought his glorified immortal body back to earth and buried it "in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Bethpeor." Who knows? Perhaps the body of Moses awaits reunion with his soul and spirit for the Tribulation Period. Perhaps Elijah and Moses will return again to the summit of Mount Nebo. From there, it is only a short distance to Jerusalem.
Perhaps the two witnesses will be the political and religious leaders of modern Israel, having both been born in the "spirits and powers" of Moses and Elijah. It is rather strange that the book of Revelation does not mention Israel's political infrastructure for the last days. John's silence on such subjects may be no mere oversight. The witness with power to turn water to blood may be a future prime minister. And the witness with power to control the weather may be a future high priest in a restored sanctuary on the Temple Mount.
Verses 7-10 indicate that they will be of Jewish descent, because the whole world will rejoice over their deaths. Anti-Semitism is evident in these verses:
"And when they shall have finished their testimony, the beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them.
"And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified.
"And they of the people and kindreds and tongues and nations shall see their dead bodies three days and an half, and shall not suffer their dead bodies to be put in graves.
"And they that dwell upon the earth shall rejoice over them, and make merry, and shall send gifts one to another; because these two prophets tormented them that dwelt on the earth" (vv. 7-10).
Their deaths are foretold for a purpose. The "beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit" will engage them in combat and succeed in killing them. This course of action is remarkably different from Israel's current conflict with Yasser Arafat.
Note, that Israel has had ample opportunity to kill the Palestinian leader and yet, they carefully preserve his life. 'Tis a noble thing they do. But the Antichrist is not so noble. He will gloat over his killing of the two witnesses, and lead the world to celebrate with him. Freed from the torments of these two witnesses, mankind will "make merry, and shall send gifts one to another."
We are told that the world will be able to see their dead bodies lying on a street in Jerusalem. Perhaps they will be killed at Israel's historic Wailing Wall. Today, a digital camera, trained on the Western Wall, transmits a photograph at one-minute intervals, via the Internet, around the world. In addition to that, several networks have television camera crews available, via satellite, to go anywhere in the world and cover news events. But the celebrating will be short-lived. Not only will the world be able to see their deaths, but their resurrections as well:
"And after three days and an half the spirit of life from God entered into them, and they stood upon their feet; and great fear fell upon them which saw them.
"And they heard a great voice from heaven saying unto them, Come up hither. And they ascended up to heaven in a cloud; and their enemies beheld them.
"And the same hour was there a great earthquake, and the tenth part of the city fell, and in the earthquake were slain of men seven thousand: and the remnant were affrighted, and gave glory to the God of heaven.
"The second woe is past; and, behold, the third woe cometh quickly" (vv.11-14).
In almost every case of ascension, a "cloud" transports the saint. Perhaps the biblical cloud is not a wispy accumulation of water vapor, but rather, a celestial transportation vehicle. Once they are safely aloft, an earthquake hits Jerusalem. Only a tenth part of the city is destroyed. That is a very small portion, yet there are 7,000 casualties. Say, could the earthquake target the Southern Wall of the Temple Mount? Could the casualties be Moslem worshippers? Just a thought. The Jewish "remnant" is frightened. Could the remnant be the worshippers at the Western Wall or on the Temple Mount? The resurrection and rapture of the two witnesses brings about a religious revival among the people, as they give God the credit for the day's remarkable events.